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TAPWater & PA Academic Standards
Each activity in the TAPWater curriculum supplement
has been reviewed by educators who aided the PA Department of Education
with the draft forms of the stateís Academic Standards for Environment
& Ecology and Science & Technolgy. Each activity in this
manual contains a list of those standards that are met by performing
the activity or conducting the experiment. The following standards
are covered, either completely or partially, in this manual: (which
can be used directly from this web page or can be downloaded in
sections in printable format from the appropriate links)
Environment & Ecology
Section 4.1 Watersheds and Wetlands -
4.1.4 Grade 4
A. Identify various types of water environments.
- Identify the lotic system (e.g. creeks, rivers,
- Identify the lentic system (e.g. ponds, lakes,
B. Explain the differences between moving and still
- Explain why water moves or does not move.
- Identify types of precipitation.
C. Identify living things found in water environments.
- Identify fish, insects and amphibians that are
found in fresh water.
D. Identify a wetland and the plants and animals
- Identify different kinds of wetlands.
- Identify plants and animals found in wetlands.
- Explain wetlands as habitats for plants and animals.
E. Recognize the impact of watersheds and wetlands
on animals and plants.
- Explain the role of watersheds in everyday life.
- Identify the role of watersheds and wetlands
for plants and animals.
4.1.7 Grade 7
A. Explain the role of the water cycle within a
- Explain the water cycle.
- Explain the water cycle as it relates to a watershed.
B. Understand the role of the watershed.
- Identify and explain what determines the boundaries
of a watershed.
- Explain how water enters a watershed.
- Explain factors that affect water quality and
flow through a watershed.
C. Explain the effects of water on the life of organisms
in a watershed.
- Explain how water is necessary for all life.
- Explain how the physical components of aquatic
systems influence the organisms that live there in terms of size,
shape and physical adaptations.
- Describe the life cycle of organisms that depend
- Identify organisms that have aquatic stages of
life and describe those stages.
D. Explain and describe characteristics of a wetland.
- Identify specific characteristics of wetland
plants and soils.
- Recognize the common types of plants and animals.
- Describe different types of wetlands.
- Describe the different functions of a wetland.
E. Describe the impact of watersheds and wetlands
- Explain the impact of watersheds and wetlands
in flood control, wildlife habitats and pollution abatement.
- Explain the influence of flooding on wetlands.
- Grade 10
A. Describe changes that occur from a streamís origin
to its final outflow.
- Identify Pennsylvaniaís major watersheds and
their related river systems.
- Describe changes by tracing a specific riverís
origin back to its headwaters including its major tributaries.
B. Explain the relationship among landforms, vegetation
and the amount and speed of water.
- Analyze a streamís physical characteristics.
- Describe how topography influences streams.
- Explain the influence of mountains on precipitation.
- Explain how vegetation affects storm water runoff.
- Delineate the boundaries of a watershed.
- Describe factors that affect the quality of groundwater.
- Explain how the speed of water and vegetation
cover relates to erosion.
C. Describe the physical characteristics of a stream
and determine the types of organisms found in aquatic environments.
- Describe and explain the physical factors that
affect a stream and the organisms living there.
- Identify terrestrial and aquatic organisms that
live in a watershed.
- Categorize aquatic organisms found in a watershed
continuum from headwater to mouth (e.g., shredder, predator, decomposer).
- Identify the types of organisms that would live
in a stream based on the streamís physical characteristics.
- Explain the habitat needs of specific aquatic
D. Describe the multiple functions of wetlands
- Describe wetlands in terms of their effects (e.g.,
habitat, flood, buffer zones, prevention areas, nurseries, food
- Explain how a wetland influences water quality,
wildlife and water retention.
- Analyze wetlands through their indicators (e.g.
soils, plants, hydrology).
Section 4.2 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources -
4.2.7 Grade 7
B. Examine the renewability of the resources.
- Identify renewable resources and describe their
- Identify the waste derived from the use of renewable
and nonrenewable resources.
- Determine how consumption may impact the availability
C. Explain natural resources distribution.
- Distinguish between readily available and less
Section 4.3 Environmental Health -
4.3.4 Grade 4
A. Know that plants, animals and humans are dependent
on air and water.
- Know that all living things need air and water
- Describe potentially dangerous pest controls
used in the home.
- Identify things that cause sickness when put
into the air, water or soil.
- Identify different areas where health can be
affected by air, water, or land pollution.
- Identify actions that can prevent or reduce waste
B. Identify how human actions affect environmental
- Identify pollutants.
- Identify sources of pollution.
- Identify litter and its effect on the environment.
- Describe how people can reduce pollution.
C. Understand that the elements of natural systems
- Identify some of the organisms that live together
in an ecosystem.
- Understand that the components of a system all
play a part in a healthy natural system.
- Identify the effects of a healthy environment
on the ecosystem.
4.3.7 Grade 7
A. Identify environmental health issues.
- Identify various examples of long-term pollution
and explain their effects on environmental health.
- Identify diseases that have been associated with
poor environmental quality.
- Describe different types of pest controls and
their effects on the environment.
- Identify alternative products that can be used
in life to reduce pollution.
B. Describe how human actions affect the health
of the environment.
- Identify land use practices and their relation
to environmental health.
- Explain how natural disasters affect environmental
- Identify residential and industrial sources of
pollution and their effects on environmental health.
- Explain the difference between point and non-point
- Explain how non-point source pollution can affect
the water supply and air quality.
- Explain how acid deposition can affect water,
soil, and air quality.
- Explain the relationship between resource use,
reuse, recycling and environmental health.
C. Explain biological diversity.
- Explain the complex, interactive relationships
among members of an ecosystem.
- Explain how diversity affects ecological integrity
of the natural resources.
4.3.10 Grade 10
A. Describe environmental health issues.
- Identify the effects on human health of air,
water and soil pollution and the possible economic costs to society.
- Explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up
- Explain how common household cleaning products
are manufactured and how to dispose of their byproducts after
B. Explain how multiple variables determine the
effects of pollution on environmental health, natural processes
and human practices.
- Explain how human practices affect the quality
of the water and soil.
- Identify local and state environmental regulations
and their impact on environmental health.
- Analyze data and explain how point source pollution
can be detected and eliminated.
C. Explain biological diversity as an indicator
of a healthy environment.
- Explain species diversity.
- Analyze the effects of species extinction on
the health of an ecosystem.
Section 4.5 Integrated Pest Management -
4.5.4 Grade 4
A. Know types of pests.
- Identify classifications of pests.
- Identify and categorize pests.
B. Explain pest control.
- Know reasons why people control pests.
4.5.7 Grade 7
A. Explain benefits and harmful effects of pests.
- Identify different examples of pests and explain
the beneficial or harmful effects of each.
B. Explain how pest management affects the environment.
- Describe how integrated pest management and related
technology impact human activities.
- Identify issues related to integrated pest management
that affect the environment.
Section 4.6 Ecosystems and their Interactions -
4.6.4 Grade 4
A. Understand that living things are dependent on
nonliving things in the environment for survival.
- Identify and categorize living and nonliving
- Describe the basic needs of an organism.
- Identify environmental variables that affect
- Identify a local ecosystem and its living and
- Identify a simple ecosystem and its living and
B. Understand the concept of cycles.
- Explain the water cycle.
- Explain the carbon dioxide/oxygen cycle (photosynthesis).
C. Identify how ecosystems change
4.6.7 Grade 7
A. Explain the flows of energy and matter from organism
to organism within an ecosystem.
- Identify and explain the characteristics of biotic
- Describe and explain the adaptations of plants
and animals to their environment.
- Demonstrate the dependency of living components
in the ecosystem on the nonliving components.
- Identify niches for producers, consumers and
decomposers within an ecosystem.
- Identify the relationship of abiotic and biotic
components and explain their interaction in an ecosystem.
- Explain how different soil types determine the
characteristics of ecosystems.
B. Explain the concepts of cycles.
- Identify and explain cycles within an ecosystem.
- Analyze the role of different cycles within an
C. Explain how ecosystems change over time.
- Explain how ecosystems change.
- Identify the succession stages of a given ecosystem.
- Explain how specific organisms may change an
- Explain a change in an ecosystem that relates
Section 4.7 Threatened, Endangered and Extinct
4.7.4 Grade 4
C. Define and understand extinction.
- Identify plants and animals that are extinct
- Explain why some plants and animals are extinct.
- Know that there are local and state laws regarding
plants and animals.
Section 4.8 Humans and the Environment -
4.8.4 Grade 4
A. Identify the biological requirements of humans.
- Explain how a dynamically changing environment
provides for sustainability of living things.
- Identify several ways that people use natural
B. Know that environmental conditions influence
where and how people live.
- Identify how regional natural resources influence
what people use.
- Explain the influence of climate on how and where
C. Explain how human activities may change the environment.
- Identify everyday human activities and how they
affect the environment.
- Identify examples of how human activities within
a community affect the natural environment.
D. Know the importance of natural resources in daily
- Identify items used in daily life that come from
- Identify ways to conserve our natural resources.
- Identify major land uses in the community.
4.8.7 Grade 7
A. Describe how the development of civilization
relates to the environment.
- Explain how people use natural resources in their
B. Explain how people use natural resources.
- Describe how natural resources are used for survival.
- Explain how natural resources and technological
changes have affected the development of civilizations.
- Explain how climate and extreme weather events
(e.g. drought, flood) influence peopleís lives.
C. Explain how human activities may affect local,
regional and national environments.
- Describe what effect consumption and related
generation of wastes have on the environment.
- Explain how a particular human activity has changed
the local area over the years.
D. Explain the importance of maintaining the natural
resources at the local, state and national levels.
- Explain how human activities and natural events
have affected ecosystems.
- Explain how conservation practices have influenced
- Define the roles of Pennsylvania agencies that
deal with natural resources.
Section 4.9 Environmental Laws and Regulations
4.9.4 Grade 4
A. Know that there are laws and regulations for
- Identify local and state laws and regulations
regarding the environment.
- Identify and describe the role of a local or
state agency that deals with environmental laws and regulations.
4.9.7 Grade 7
A. Explain the role of environmental laws and regulations.
- Identify and explain environmental laws and regulations
(e.g. Clean Water Act).
- Explain the role of local and state agencies
in enforcing environmental laws and regulations (e.g. Department
of Environmental Protection).